| The exotic dress and circumstance of Arabian and Indian female figurals is shown in Figure 5-5 & Figure 5-6. The exoticism of Eastern and oriental cultures was particularly popular at this time and also shows the influence of colonial culture in England. In her analysis of The Keepsake, Kathryn Ledbetter says that the pictures were designed to stimulate the middle-class female reader’s interest in romance, the exotic, and portray ideal feminine beauty. She quotes Charles Heath, publisher of The Keepsake admonishing an artist to change a drawing of a mother and her daughter to make them look the same age:
I don’t care about her maternity....You must not make her more than twenty or
nobody will buy it! If you won’t I must get Frank Stone to do it instead. All
Frank Stone's beauties are nineteen exactly. (Ledbetter 195)
Of the 1,333 female figural engravings in the current Index, the six predominant artists were E. T. Parris (79 plates), Edward Corbould (71 plates), A. E. Chalon (38 plates), F. P. Stephanoff (37 plates), J. W. Wright (20 plates), and John Wood (19 plates). The six prominent engravers were: Charles Rolls (82 plates), Charles Heath (78 plates), W. H. Mote (70 plates), Henry Robinson (64 plates), Henry Cook (63 plates), and James Thomson (24 plates).
Portraits of prominent or titled women could be classified as female figurals. During the last decade of his career, Sir Thomas Lawrence, a famous portrait painter and a President of the Royal Academy, was accused of pandering to the tastes of the readers of The Keepsake, The Bijou, and The Amulet for his sentimentalized portraits of society women that appeared in the “knickknack” annuals. Kenneth Garlick quotes the critic Haydon as saying, “Lawrence was suited to the age and the age to Lawrence,” suggesting a surrender to meretricious taste. Garlick notes that Haydon was right that Lawrence adapted his style to the mood of the day, but he was wrong in the implication that Lawrence lowered his professional standards. The portraits: The Countess of Blessington, Lady Georgiana Agar-Ellis and Son, and Lady Wallscourt are highly artificial creations that according to Henry Fuseli were an attempt to unite the Goddess with the Belle, and this no doubt exactly fulfilled each sitter’s estimation of her own appearance (Garlick 14). Figure 5-7 shows Lawrence’s portrait Lady Georgiana Agar-Ellis with his portrait shown in Figure 5-8. Lawrence’s work does not seem to be as highly stylized as Rochard’s portrait Mrs. Stanhope in Figure 5-9. Chalon’s portrait of The Lady Agnes Byng shown in Figure 5-10 indicates that the subject’s dress may be of as important as her countenance. Of the 440 portrait engravings, the six predominant artists were Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A. (48 plates), A. E. Chalon, R.A. (38 plates), John Hayter (23 plates), Sir William C. Ross, R.A. (20 plates), R. Buckner (16 plates), and W. Drummond (14 plates). The six prominent engravers were W. H. Mote (71 plates), Cochran (50 plates), Robinson (47 plates), Henry Cook (19 plates), James Thomson (18 plates), and William Holl (16 plates).
Figural engravings are defined here as those that do not emphasize the female. There is some overlap here with the architectural and landscape categories depending on whether the figures or the structures dominate the picture. There is also a problematic division between historical and figural classifications. Figure 5-11 depicts classical figures possibly as metaphor where Aeneas, the Trojan who founded the Roman Empire represents the British Empire, and Dido, Queen of Carthage, often represents France. Figure 5-12 shows the historical event of Raphael’s death. The predominant artists of the 416 figural engravings were: Henry Corbould (13 plates), Westall (13 plates), Daniell (12 plates), and Thomas Stothard (10 plates). The prominent engravers were Charles Rolls (20 plates), Edward Finden (20 plates), Henry Cook (27 plates), and Charles Heath (15 plates). Of the 118 historical engravings, the predominant artists were John Martin (12 plates), Richard Westall (5 plates), and George Cattermole (5 plates). The prominent engravers were: William Greatbach (7 plates), George Presbury (6 plates), and Edward Finden (5 plates).
Of the 792 landscape engravings, the six predominant artists were Thomas Allom (79 plates), James Duffield Harding (68 plates), Samuel Prout, R.A. (48 plates), David Roberts (43 plates), William Henry Bartlett (31 plates), and J. M. W. Turner, R.A. (29 plates). The six prominent engravers were Edward Goodall (38 plates), James T. Willmore (36 plates), James B. Allen (28 plates), Edward Finden (25 plates), Robert Brandard (24 plates), and W. J. Cooke (19 plates). Figure 5-13 shows an imaginary landscape of Rome that captures Castel Sant’Angelo, St. Peter’s Basilica, the Tiber River, peasants in native dress and their lodgings compressed into one picture for the enjoyment of the middle classes that could not afford to travel there. More accessible for the middle class tourist is the romantic landscape in Figure 5-14 of Scale Force, Cumberland. Foreign locations are represented in Figure 5-15 of Antioch in the Middle East and Figure 5-16 in India. These topographical drawings could equally serve military and colonial purposes, as well as an artistic one.